Labour and Employment


For over forty-five years, we have represented the interests of employers of both federally and provincially regulated companies in the public and private sectors. Our clientele is composed of local, national, and international companies and institutions in a wide range of economic sectors.

Lavery has more than forty lawyers practicing exclusively in the area of labour and employment law, including specialists in pension plans, human rights, occupational health and safety, labour relations, and employment law. The extensive experience and skills of these specialists are widely recognized in the field of labour law. Lavery’s expertise in this field is recommended by the Canadian Legal Lexpert Directory.

When appropriate, these experts work with other lawyers specialized in privacy law, the protection of personal information, and the immigration of skilled workers, whose expertise may be required to resolve complex issues arising in the workplace. Our clients can thus count on the skills of a strong, thorough, multidisciplinary team.

The services offered by our team cover every aspect of labour law, from providing strategic advice to representation before administrative and judicial bodies and the negotiation of agreements.


Labour law

  • Strategic advice, particularly on mergers and acquisitions and business turnaround
  • Negotiation of collective agreements
  • Grievance and dispute arbitration
  • Representation in matters involving penal complaints
  • Mediation in all its forms
  • Negotiation support in matters involving dismissal and termination of employment
  • Extraordinary remedies, judicial reviews, injunctions
  • Assistance with matters involving pay equity and employment equity programs
  • Representation in all matters pertaining to union certification
  • Management of work attendance and job performance

Employment law

  • Strategic advice, particularly on mergers and acquisitions and business turnaround
  • Negotiation and drafting of employment agreements and complementary agreements such as non-compete and non-solicitation agreements and agreements to assign intellectual property rights
  • Advice regarding privacy and the protection of personal information in the workplace
  • Representation in complaints made under the Employment Standards Act, including complaints of psychological harassment and dismissal without good and sufficient cause
  • Mediation in all its forms
  • Assistance and representation in matters involving dismissal and termination of employment
  • Extraordinary remedies, judicial reviews, injunctions
  • Management of work attendance and job performance

Human rights

  • Strategic advice
  • Assistance and representation in matters involving complaints filed with Québec's Commission de la personne et de la jeunesse
  • Representation before Québec's Commission de la personne et de la jeunesse and the Human Rights Tribunal

Occupational Health and Safety

  • Financing
  • Compensation
  • Management of occupational injury files
  • Reconciliation of industrial accident files
  • Representation before the courts

Advisory role

  • Advise managers on general issues related to the laws and principles governing labour relations, human rights, and occupational health and safety
  • Assist managers in the administration of collective agreements
  • Analyze the financial and organizational impact of management decisions regarding labour relations
  • Analyze financial issues related to workers' compensation claims including the financial impact of the imputation of the cost of benefits required under the Act
  • Regularly update managers on changes to legislation governing labour, human rights, and occupational health and safety
  • Offer personalized training of managers based on their needs and those of the organization

Our team recommends a practical, pro-active approach to quickly resolving problems. When litigation or confrontation becomes inevitable, however, our experts are prepared to diligently and efficiently promote the best interests of employers.

Top Ranked Chambers Canada Lavery Lawyers

Canadian Legal Lexpert Directory

  1. Payroll deductions: what employers need to know about changes to provincial income tax rates

    On March 21, 2023, during his traditional budget speech, the Minister of Finance of Québec announced that Quebecers will benefit from a general reduction in personal income taxes starting in 2023. The effect will be a reduction in the tax rates that apply to the first two taxable income brackets of the personal income tax table. In addition to having a positive impact on Quebecers’ disposable income, the tax cut will also have repercussions on source deduction rates applied to certain payments and remuneration. The fixed rates used for provincial income tax source deductions on lump-sum payments have been changed. Employers will therefore have to adjust their calculations for such payments. This will be the case, for example, where sums are paid as retiring allowances, as is frequently the case in the settlement of certain employment termination agreements. Previously, the rate used to calculate provincial income tax source deductions on a retiring allowance payment was 15% for amounts up to $5,000, and 20% for payments over $5,000. The income tax deductions on such payments made after June 30, 2023, is now 14% for amounts up to $5,000, and 19% for payments over $5,000. Table of provincial and federal income tax source deduction rates for lump-sum payments, effective July 1, 2023, by amount of lump-sum payment (e.g. retiring allowance): $5,000 or less Provincial tax rate 14% Federal tax rate 5% Over $5,000 up to $15,000 Provincial tax rate 19% Federal tax rate 10% Over $15,000 Provincial tax rate 19% Federal tax rate 15% Although it may seem trivial, this review of provincial income tax source deduction rates has far-reaching implications, given that these are often used by parties especially in the negotiation of employment termination agreements. Human resources and payroll professionals must use the new income tax source deductions in their employment termination negotiations to ensure that they are tax compliant. A positive outcome of these rates is that employees will now have more disposable income after tax for the same amount paid by their employer. Such a measure could make reaching an agreement easier in the context of tough negotiations. As an employer, it is essential that you update your payroll systems and processes to correctly reflect the new income tax rates and ensure tax compliance. Our team of labour law and tax professionals is available to answer your questions about this change and help you make informed decisions that will benefit your business.

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  2. An Act respecting the regulation of work by children Now in Force: Employers of Young Workers Must Act Quickly

    On June 1, 2023, Bill 19 entitled An Act respecting the regulation of work by children (the “Act”) which establishes, in particular, a minimum working age of 14 and a maximum number of hours of work for children subject to compulsory school attendance, was assented to. Most of the Act’s provisions came into force on June 1, 2023. This Act was presented in the wake of a massive and noticeable entry of young workers into the job market in a context where the shortage of unskilled workers was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Work performed by these children has received significant media coverage in recent months, in particular because of the concerns raised regarding their health and safety and the risk of school dropouts and disengagement. Below is a brief overview of the existing rules governing work by children and the amendments introduced by the Act. A.        RULES GOVERNING WORK BY CHILDREN BEFORE THE ACT CAME INTO FORCE Before the Act was passed, there was no minimum working age or maximum number of hours of work per week for children in Quebec. However, the Act respecting labour standards (the “ALS”)1 already provided certain rules applicable to work performed by children. The following rules remain unchanged by the Act: Prohibition of work performed by a child that is disproportionate to the child’s capacity, or that is likely to be detrimental to the child’s education, health or physical or moral development.2 Prohibition of work performed during school hours by a child subject to compulsory school attendance.3 In Quebec, the obligation to attend school extends to the last day of school in the school year in which the child reaches 16 years of age or in which the child graduates if they are under 16 years of age.4 The employer must also ensure that the child can attend school during school hours.5 Prohibition of work by a child between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. if the child is subject to compulsory school attendance, except in the case of newspaper deliveries or other cases provided for in the Regulation, in particular for certain categories of artists.6 Obligation to ensure that the child can be at the child’s residence between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m., except in the case of a child no longer subject to compulsory school attendance and in the cases provided for in the Regulation.7 In addition, certain regulations adopted under the Act respecting occupational health and safety stipulate a minimum age for performing certain tasks (e.g., diving, excavation, demolition, etc.). B.        AMENDMENTS INTRODUCED BY THE ACT 1)   Amendments to the Act respecting labour standards and the Regulation respecting labour standards Minimum age to perform work: The ALS was amended to set the minimum working age at 14,8 except as provided in the Regulation. The exceptions are as follows: a)     Creator or performer in a field of artistic endeavour referred to in the first paragraph of section 1 of the Act respecting the professional status of artists in the visual arts, film, the recording arts, literature, arts and crafts and the performing arts; b)     Deliverer of newspapers or other publications; c)     Babysitter; d)     Child who provides homework assistance or tutoring; e)     Child working in a family enterprise with fewer than 10 employees if the child is a child of the employer or, where the latter is a legal person or partnership, a child of a director of that legal person or of a partner of that partnership, or if the child is a child of the spouse of one of those persons; f)       Child working in a non-profit organization having social or community purposes, such as a vacation camp or recreational organization; g)     Child working in a non-profit sports organization to assist another person or provide support, such as an assistant instructor, assistant coach or scorekeeper; h)     Child working in an agricultural enterprise with fewer than 10 employees, where the child performs light manual labour to harvest fruits or vegetables, take care of animals or prepare or maintain soil. In this particular case, the child must be 12 years of age or over. Note that for the application of each of the above exceptions, the employer must obtain the consent of the holder of parental authority using the form established by the CNESST9 no later than July 1, 2023. In addition, with respect to the exceptions in paragraphs (e) to (h) above, such children must work under the supervision of a person 18 years of age or over at all times. Maximum number of hours of work: 17 hours per week,10 including a maximum of 10 hours Monday through Friday for children subject to compulsory school attendance, except during periods of more than seven consecutive days without educational services offered to the child. This new labour standard will come into force on September 1, 2023. Notice of termination of employment: No later than July 1, 2023, an employer who employs a child under 14 years of age performing work that is now prohibited must send the child a notice of termination of employment. The length of the notice varies depending on the child’s years of service: -       Three months to less than one year of uninterrupted service: one week’s notice -       One to two years of uninterrupted service: two weeks’ notice -       Two years or more of uninterrupted service: three weeks’ notice The employer may have the child perform work during the period of notice or pay the child a compensatory indemnity equal to the child’s regular wage, excluding overtime, for a period equal to the period or remaining period of notice. The indemnity to be paid to a child who is remunerated in whole or in part by commission is established based on the average of the child’s weekly wage, calculated from the complete periods of pay in the three months preceding the termination of employment. The child may also require the employer to issue a work certificate setting forth the nature and the duration of the child’s employment.11 Should the employer fail to pay the sums to which the child is entitled, the provisions relating to civil recourses set out in the ALS12 will apply. Penalties: An employer who fails to abide by the provisions governing the work of children commits an offence and is liable to a fine under the ALS. Fines are doubled in the event of a repeat offence. Effective date: The Act’s amendments to the ALS and the Regulation came into force on June 1, 2023, with the exception of the maximum number of hours of work for children subject to compulsory school attendance (section 3), which will come into force on September 1, 2023.   2)   Amendments to the Act respecting occupational health and safety The Act also amends provisions of the Act respecting occupational health and safety that are already being amended by the Act to modernize the occupational health and safety regime (“Bill 27”), not all of which are currently in force. The amendments introduced by the Act have or will come into force on the same dates as the provisions of Bill 27. The amendments introduced by the Act regarding occupational health and safety include the following: Prevention program: The program must include the identification and analysis of risks that may affect the health and safety of workers in the establishment, but more specifically those affecting workers who are 16 years of age or under. The same applies to establishments subject to the obligation to develop an action plan. Health and Safety Committee: The committee’s functions include participating in the identification and analysis of risks that may affect the health and safety of workers in the establishment, including those that may particularly affect workers who are 16 years of age or under. Health and safety representative and health and safety liaison officer: They identify situations that may be hazardous to workers, including those specific to workers who are 16 years of age and under, and make recommendations to the Health and Safety Committee, the employer and the union, if any, regarding tasks that should not be performed by workers 16 years of age or under. In conclusion, the Act introduces major changes regarding the supervision of work of children, in particular by setting the minimum working age, with certain exceptions, at 14 years of age and by limiting the working week of children subject to the obligation to attend school. Most of these provisions, which came into force on June 1, 2023, require swift action on the part of the employers concerned, and are likely to have a significant impact on work schedules and the available workforce in a number of businesses as the summer approaches. 1 CQLR, c. N-1.1 (the “ALS”). 2 Section 84.2 of the ALS. 3 Section 84.4 of the ALS. 4 Section 14 of the Education Act, CQLR, c. I-13.3. 5 Section 84.5 of the ALS. 6 Section 84.6 of the ALS and section 35.1 of the Regulation respecting labour standards, CQLR, c. N-1.1, r. 3 (the “Regulation”). 7 Section 84.7 of the ALS and section 35.2 of the Regulation. 8 Section 84.3 of the ALS.   9 The CNESST form entitled “Consentement pour le travail d’un enfant de moins de 14 ans” [in French only] can be found here: 10 Section 84.4 of the ALS. 11 Section 84 of the ALS. 12 Sections 98 and following of the ALS.

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  3. Competition Act amendments are about to come into force – What businesses need to know following the release of the official Enforcement Guidelines

    On June 23, 2023, major amendments to section 45 of the Competition Act1 (the “Act”) are set to come into force. Adopted in 2022 by the Parliament of Canada, these amendments are primarily designed to harmonize Canadian non-competition law with legislation in various other countries, particularly the U.S., which restricts certain business practices regarded as harmful to workers. The amendments to the Act will have an impact on employers across Canada, whether or not they operate in an area of federal or provincial jurisdiction. Beginning on June 23, 2023, the Act will prohibit “unaffiliated” employers from entering into agreements aimed at: i) fixing wages or employment conditions; or ii) restricting the job mobility of employees by means of reciprocal non-solicitation and no-poaching agreements. In this regard, it should be noted that agreements between affiliated companies (e.g., controlled by the same parent company) do not violate the Act. This bulletin seeks to provide a summary of various amendments of interest to employers in light of the official version of the related enforcement guidelines (the “Guidelines”), which were published by the Competition Bureau (the “Bureau”) on May 30, 2023.2 Although the Guidelines do not have the force of law, they set out the Bureau’s approach when interpreting applicable prohibitions and defences. AGREEMENTS FIXING WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS Paragraph 45 (1.1) (a) of the Act prohibits agreements between unaffiliated employers aimed at fixing, maintaining, decreasing or controlling wages and other employment conditions. In this regard, the Bureau’s Guidelines state that “terms and conditions of employment” typically refer to any condition that could affect a person’s decision to enter into, or remain in, an employment contract. This may include “job descriptions, allowances such as per diem and mileage reimbursements, non-monetary compensation, working hours, location and non-compete clauses, or other directives that may restrict an individual’s job opportunities”. Citing an example of a problematic case in light of the Act’s new provisions, the Bureau describes a situation in which two unaffiliated employers hold a lunch meeting during which they agree to limit the annual bonuses of their employees to 5% of their gross salary. This type of agreement would, in all likelihood, be prohibited under the Act. NON-POACHING AND NON-SOLICITATION AGREEMENTS Paragraph (1.1) (b) of the Act also prohibits agreements between unaffiliated employers that could limit the prospects of their employees being hired by the other employer. This new provision concerns reciprocal non-solicitation and non-poaching agreements between employers. These agreements are found fairly frequently in commercial contracts covering mergers/acquisitions, joint ventures, partnerships, sales, procurement/supplies of goods and services, franchises, recruitment and personnel placement, etc. However, as discussed below, it should be noted that these types of agreement would only violate the Act if the parties had reciprocal non-poaching obligations in place. In other words, if the obligation is only “one-way”, i.e., only one of the parties is subject to the obligation not to solicit or poach the employees of the other employer, there is no infraction. POTENTIAL EXEMPTIONS AND DEFENCES The main defence against proceedings initiated under subsection 45 (1.1) is based on the ancillary restraints defence (“ARD”). To use it, employers must demonstrate that: The restraint is ancillary to a broader or separate agreement between the parties; The restraint is directly related to and reasonably necessary for achieving the objective of the broader or separate agreement; and The broader or separate agreement does not otherwise violate subsection 45 (1.1) of the Act (when considered without the restraint). For example, it is reasonable to expect that an agency specializing in temporarily placing personnel with its clients would want to prevent its clients from hiring said personnel for the duration of their agreement. In that case, the ARD defence could be used. The agreement, however, must be carefully drafted so the employer can demonstrate that it was reasonably necessary for achieving the desired objective. In this regard, the Bureau notes that the  duration, objective and geographical scope of the restraint, among other factors, will be examined when determining whether the agreement is in fact “reasonably necessary”. The Guidelines states that the Bureau “will generally not assess wage-fixing or no-poaching clauses that are ancillary to merger transactions, joint ventures or strategic alliances under the criminal provisions”. However, the Bureau “may start an investigation under subsection 45(1.1), where those clauses are clearly broader than necessary in terms of duration or affected employees, or where the business agreement or arrangement is a sham.” Other exemptions and defences may also apply, such as the defence based on regulated conduct3 or the exemption with respect to collective bargaining.4 APPLICABLE SANCTIONS Violations of the new subsection 45 (1.1) could lead to criminal charges. A person found guilty of an offence could be subjected to a fine at the discretion of the court or may be imprisoned for up to 14 years, or both. In addition, under section 36 of the Act,individuals (in all likelihood workers) who suffer losses or damages due to violations of provisions of the Act, including section 45 (thus including the new subsection 45 (1.1)), can claim from the person engaging in such misconduct (in this case, the employer) a sum corresponding to the amount of the losses or damages suffered. Therefore, violations of these provisions could lead to civil suits and possibly, in certain cases, to a class action suit. SPECIFICATIONS REGARDING EXISTING AGREEMENTS AND NEXT STEPS The Guidelines specify that the prohibitions set in out subsection 45(1.1) apply not only to agreements entered into on or after June 23, 2023, but also to conduct that reaffirms or implements agreements that were entered into before that date. In this respect, at least two of the parties to these prior agreements must reaffirm or implement the restraint. This may include, for example, the renewal by two or more parties of an agreement containing a prohibited undertaking. The Bureau also notes that it will be focusing on the intent of the parties on or after June 23, 2023. In that context, companies are advised to review their contract templates and to update their pre-existing agreements in the normal course of business. We therefore recommend that all companies, whether operating in an area of provincial or federal jurisdiction, examine the contracts currently in effect to which they are party and identify any clauses that might constitute violations under the new provisions of the Act. Various strategies or corrective measures aimed at limiting business risks could then be evaluated and implemented depending on the necessity and reasonableness of the undertakings in question are (e.g., renegotiating an undertaking or adopting a directive confirming that the employer will not apply an undertaking on or after June 23, 2023, etc.). Please feel free to contact the members of our teams for further details or for ad R.S.C. 1985 c. C-34, as amended by Bill C-19, Budget Implementation Act 2022, No. 1, S.C. 2022, c. 10. Competition Bureau. Enforcement guidelines on wage-fixing and no-poaching agreements on line, May 30, 2023. Subsection 45(7) of the Act. Section 4 of the Act.

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  4. The return of Christmas parties: what employers need to know

    After two years of navigating COVID-19, the end of 2022 will be an opportunity for employers to organise larger activities for their employees, such as Christmas parties. The purpose of this newsletter is to make employers aware of their obligations during the holiday season festivities. Below, we will address the following three issues: industrial accidents, disciplinary measures and psychological harassment. Although Christmas parties are generally held outside of the workplace and outside normal working hours, an incident that occurs on such an occasion may qualify as an “industrial accident” within the meaning of the Act respecting industrial accidents and occupational diseases.1 Courts will consider several factors in weighing whether or not such an incident will constitute a work-related accident, including the purpose of the party, the time and place where it was held, whether or not it is organized and financed by the employer, and the presence or absence of a relationship of subordination at the time of the incident. None of these factors are decisive: they serve as a guideline for the tribunal. As many decisions have both granted2 or rejected3 claims in such circumstances. In one case where a Christmas party had been organized by the employer and was intended to encourage a sense of cohesion and belonging amongst the employees, an injury to the coccyx suffered by an employee while dancing with a co-worker was qualified as an industrial accident.4 However, in another case where an employee was injured on an escalator while escorting a drunken co-worker after a Christmas party, the tribunal ruled that the female employee had not suffered an industrial accident due to the absence of authority exercised by the employer at the time of the fall and also because the event was only intended to permit colleagues to fraternize and spend time together and not to improve the work environment.5 In the context of its management rights, an employer may, in certain circumstances, discipline an employee for behaviour which occurred during a Christmas party.6 The degree of the employer’s involvement in the organization of the party and the private nature of the party are important factors in determining whether the employer is justified in imposing disciplinary measures in such a context. For example, an arbitrator upheld the dismissal of an employee who repeatedly hit a colleague and former spouse during the employer's Christmas party held on its premises.7 The fact that the violent acts were committed during a party rather than in the direct context of work was not considered a mitigating factor. This disciplinary power is part of the employer's obligation to ensure a violence-free workplace. This obligation has gained in importance since the recent addition to the Act respecting occupational health and safety8 of the employer's obligation to “take the measures to ensure the protection of a worker exposed to physical or psychological violence, including spousal, family or sexual violence, in the workplace”.9 In another case, the arbitrator concluded that the employer could not discipline an employee for acts committed at a Christmas party organized and entirely financed by the employees and which took place outside the workplace.10 On another note, a single act of serious conduct at a Christmas party may constitute psychological harassment. A complaint for psychological harassment was upheld against an employer in a situation where the owner had touched the breast of an employee by slipping an ice cube into her sweater.11 This contact, a single gesture, was qualified by the arbitrator as serious conduct amounting to psychological harassment. The arbitrator also concluded that excessive alcohol consumption had no mitigating effect on the seriousness of the act committed. Sexual comments, forced touching and kissing by an employee during the Christmas party were also deemed to constitute psychological and sexual harassment by the courts justifying, in certain circumstances, dismissal.12 Conclusion In light of the foregoing, an employer must exercise caution and adopt measures to reduce the risks associated with the organization of Christmas parties, given that they may be held responsible for accidents or various acts or behaviour that occur during such gatherings. [1] CQLR, c. A-3.001, s. 2. [2] See in particular Fafard et Commission scolaire des Trois-Lacs, 2014 QCCLP 6156; Battram et Québec (Ministère de la Justice), 2007 QCCLP 4450. [3] See in particular Environnement Canada et Lévesque, 2001 CanLII 46818 (QCCLP), par. 35-39; Desjardins et EMD Construction inc., 2007 QCCLP 496. [4] Boivin et Centre communautaire juridique de l'Estrie, 2011 QCCLP 2645 [. [5] Roy-Bélanger et Ressources Globales Aéro inc., 2021 QCTAT 1739 [Quebec’s Tribunal administratif du travail]. [6] Teamsters Québec, section locale 1999 et Univar Canada ltée (Jean-Martin Gobeil), 2020 QCTA 344 (L. Viau). [7] Travailleurs et travailleuses unis de l'alimentation et du commerce, section locale 500 (TUAC-FTQ) et Royal Vézina inc. (St-Hubert) (Hicham Alaoui), 2017 QCTA 304 (F. Lamy). [8] CQLR, c. S-2.1. [9] Act respecting occupational health and safety, CQLR, s. 2.1, a. 51, par. 1 (16). This obligation was added pursuant to the Act to modernize the occupational health and safety regime (2021, c. 27, a. 139), [10] Syndicat de la fonction publique et parapublique du Québec et Société de l'assurance automobile du Québec (Joffrey Lemieux), 2021 QCTA 439 (C. Roy). [11] S.H. et Compagnie A, 2007 QCCRT 0348, D.T.E. 2007T-722 (T.A.) (F. Giroux). [12] Pelletier et Sécuritas Canada ltée, 2004 QCCRT 0554 (M. Marchand).  

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  1. Catherine Deslauriers, Guy Lavoie, Éric Thibaudeau and Lavery named as a reference by the 2022 Canadian Occupational Safety – 5-Star Safety Lawyers & Law Firms

    July 12, 2022 – Catherine Deslauriers, Guy Lavoie, Eric Thibaudeau and Lavery have been named as a reference in Occupational Health and Safety by Canadian Occupational Safety – 5-Star Safety Lawyers & Law Firms. To determine the best lawyers and law firms catering to the safety industry, Canadian Occupational Safety sourced feedback from safety leaders over a period of 15 weeks. COS’s research team began by conducting a survey with a wide range of safety officers to determine what companies value in the law firms they collaborate with.

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  2. Lexpert recognizes two partners as leading workers’ compensation lawyers in Quebec

    On February 10, 2021, Lexpert unveiled the identity of Québec’s leading lawyers in the field of workers’ compensation. Two Lavery partners, Guy Lavoie and Éric Thibaudeau, appear among the top lawyers in this area of practice. Guy Lavoie is a partner with the Labour and employment law group. His clients’ business concerns are always a priority when he proposes strategies and alternatives designed to resolve their problems. With over 30 years’ experience in labour relations, employment law, and occupational health and safety, he appears regularly before various administrative tribunals. He also works with the firm’s Business law group on the labour and employment law aspects of mergers and acquisitions. Éric Thibaudeau is a partner and a member of the Labour and Employment Group. He has special expertise in the area of occupational health and safety, regarding issues within the jurisdiction of the Administrative Labour Tribunal (ALT) as well as penal infractions prosecuted by the CNESST that are heard in the Court of Québec’s Criminal and Penal Division. He also acts for employers in grievance arbitrations, labour-relations matters and collective agreement decrees. In addition, he advises construction contractors and project owners on all matters within the jurisdiction of the construction industry regulatory authorities, such as the Commission de la construction du Québec and the Régie du bâtiment du Québec.

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  3. Lavery's expertise recognized by Chambers Canada 2021

    Lavery has been recognized in the following fields as a leader in the 2021 edition of the Chambers Canada guide: Corporate/Commercial (Québec Band 1, Highly Regarded) Employment and Labour (Québec Band 2) Energy and Natural Resources: Mining (Nationwide Band 5) The lawyers and law firms profiled in Chambers Canada are selected following through a rigorous process of research and interviews with a broad spectrum of lawyers and their clients. The final selection is based on clearly defined criteria such as the quality of client service, legal expertise, and commercial astuteness. Learn more about our professionals who have once again been recognized in Chambers Canada Guide 2021.. 

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