In order to reduce community transmission and preserve everyone’s safety and that of our healthcare system, the government requires everyone to make extra efforts, both in their private lives and at work. The closure of retail businesses, save for some exceptions, is maintained, the lockdown to prevent gatherings continues and a curfew was added on January 9, 2021, to remain in effect until the currently announced date of February 8, 20211. How can employers review their work organization to the extent possible for them while complying with government guidelines? Here are a few questions and answers to clarify the situation. With the curfew in effect, do I need to review my work organization and schedules if my activities are not suspended or prohibited? If you operate an essential retail business, you are required to review your employees’ schedules and work hours in order to abide by the curfew and allow your employees to leave your business no later than 7:30 p.m. in order to be home by 8 p.m. Companies in the construction, manufacturing and primary processing industries must reduce their activities “to pursue only those activities necessary to fulfil their commitments” (our translation): To properly measure the scope of this requirement, the guidelines and directives issued by the authorities (including CNESST) must be closely followed. However, on the basis of this statement in the Decree adopted on the evening of January 8, 2021, in order to be able to demonstrate the steps taken to comply with directives, companies should review confirmed contracts and orders, agreed-upon delivery dates and inherent production delays to modify work planning (e.g. priority orders to be delivered by February 8, 2021, staff work days and hours, evening and night shifts). In its online communications, the Government of Quebec asks not only that activities be reduced to a minimum to complete commitments, but also that shifts be adjusted to limit the staff present at any time on production and construction sites. Businesses in this situation may require special negotiations to make the necessary adjustments given working conditions, policies or collective agreements in place. When should I consider temporary layoffs due to a reduction in my activities as a result of the increased lockdown or curfew? Subject to the provisions of a collective agreement or employment contract (e.g. guaranteed hours of work), an employer may consider reorganizing work and allocating working hours among employees by coming to an agreement on temporary working conditions with them to avoid layoffs. If such an agreement is not possible for legal, organizational or efficiency reasons, layoffs may be considered: With confirmation of the layoffs as being related to COVID-19, in which case concerned employees can verify their eligibility for the Canada Recovery Benefit or EI benefits depending on the circumstances. An employer should also document the reasons behind temporary layoffs and, for example, in its determination of who is affected according to the organization’s applicable criteria, for recall purposes and analysis of whether or not extending such layoffs is necessary. How do I protect my essential employees who would have to travel during curfew to get to work or return home? For each employee required to travel during the 8 p.m. to 5 a.m. curfew, the employer must prepare an explanatory letter (attestation letter) as evidence that the employer’s activities are authorized under the applicable directives and that the employee’s work is essential to carrying out authorized activities (this includes transporting goods required for such activities). The attestation letter must include information that could reasonably lead the police to conclude that the employee is allowed to travel during the curfew because that employee qualifies for one of the exceptions provided by the government. Exceptions are known to be interpreted restrictively. On the basis of the form letter issued by the government and the purpose of the attestation letter, this letter should include information such as: The name of the employer and its authorized representative (with letterhead confirming the company’s contact information, including its website). The nature of the employer’s activities. The employee’s duties, home address and work contact information. The employee’s work schedule. The contact information and telephone number of the person available between 8 p.m. and 5 a.m. to provide details to police officers who may stop the employee (this person must be familiar with the employer’s authorized activities involving the employee as well as the employee’s position and schedule). The validity period of the attestation and its date of signature. I operate a retail business that is not identified as an authorized priority business since December 25, 2020. Can I operate and sell goods online and how can my customers retrieve their purchases? E-commerce is allowed, even for non-essential goods (sales can also be completed by phone). The key points: Telework should be maximized as much as possible, with physical presence being limited to only those employees whose presence is essential to the workplace. Goods can be delivered or picked up at the door without entering a store. Payment must be made by telephone if a sale is made in this way and without the customer entering the business. We will follow developments and keep you informed as it is important to keep track of possible—and often frequent changes and adjustments brought to the directives. The professionals of our Labour and Employment team are available to advise you and answer your questions. See https://www.quebec.ca/en/health/health-issues/a-z/2019-coronavirus/confinement-in-quebec/ and the January 8, 2021, Order in Council 2-2021 Ordering of measures to protect the health of the population amid the COVID-19 pandemic situation.
- Québec, 1986
Senior Associate and Certified mediator (Québec Bar and IMAC)
Upon being admitted to the Québec Bar, Véronique Morin joined the firm in Québec City. She began practising commercial law and civil law, particularly in litigation, while acquiring valuable experience in labour law and judicial review before the courts of law.
Since 1996, Ms. Morin has been practising at the firm’s Montréal office in labour, health and administrative law. She represents public, parapublic and private entities before administrative tribunals and the courts, notably regarding dismissal of executives and human rights.
She has also developed an interest in issues relating to psychological harassment and the managerial rights of employers. In addition, Ms. Morin regularly speaks at conferences and writes articles on human resources management and labour law matters.
Ms Morin has authored various articles in legal publications, such as:
- Les éléments qui composent un programme de télétravail ou comment ne pas perdre le fil, Le Coin de l’Expert (CRHA), November 2017
- La discrimination en emploi : ce que le gestionnaire RH doit savoir, de l’enquête à la médiation, Vigie-RT (CRHA), February 2017
- Comment préparer la voie à une enquête en matière de harcèlement psychologique, Coin de l’expert (CHRP), January 2017
- Droits et libertés de la personne : une question d'équilibre, Revue Effectif (ORHRI), April/May 2008, volume 11, no. 2, pp. 44-47
- Les politiques d'entreprise : Cet outil de gestion trop souvent délaissé parce que méconnu, Revue Avantages, volume 20, no. 2, March 2008, pp. 27-29
- Les juridictions du Tribunal des droits de la personne et des droits de la jeunesse et les relations de travail : nouvelles frontières?, Développements récents en droit du travail 2003 (Éditions Yvon Blais, pp. 229-285)
- Lavallée, Rackel & Heintz c. Procureur général du Canada – Lorsque le droit procédural ajoute au droit substantif en matière de secret professionnel, Développements récents en déontologie, droit professionnel et disciplinaire 2003 (Éditions Yvon Blais, pp. 67-106)
- La déontologie et le in-house counsel : grandeurs et misères, Développements récents en déontologie, droit professionnel et disciplinaire 2001 (Éditions Yvon Blais, pp. 193-213)
- Les plaintes et le processus d’examen des plaintes : balises et perspectives, Développements récents en déontologie, droit professionnel et disciplinaire 2000 (Éditions Yvon Blais, pp. 191-212)
- LL.B., Université Laval, 1985
Boards and Professional Affiliations
- Canadian Bar Association
- Certified Industrial Relations Counsellor (CIRC), Ordre des conseillers en ressources humaines agréés
- Institut de médiation et d’arbitrage du Québec (certified mediator)
- Member of the Labour law Committee of the Barreau du Québec
- Member of the Conseil d’arbitrage de comptes of the Barreau du Québec
- President of the Elder Law Section of the Canadian Bar Association (Quebec Branch)
- Member of the Board of Directors of the McCord Stewart Museum
- President of the Fondation du CSSS Lucille-Teasdale
- Certified mediator
Due to the ongoing pandemic and the resulting suspension of many company activities, certain employers are maintaining their operations by means of telework. Employers have had to swiftly redeploy their human resources to an extent that would have been unimaginable just a few weeks ago. The redeployment of resources now working from home was done in a time of crisis, without the benefit of advanced planning, training, and strategic evaluation that usually accompanies changes of this magnitude. With no prediction yet available on how long the current crisis will last, employers must take steps now to ensure that the measures implemented to promote the continuity of their operations do not result in negative consequences, disputes or claims from their employees, clients or partners. In Quebec, thousands of employees are currently using new technological tools in a new environment (their homes), often without supervision. The boundary between private life and work has never been more blurred. The magnitude of the current context can artificially obscure the importance of employers adapting their operational methods and associated human resource policies to avoid the risks associated with working remotely. Employers must remember that legal action could be taken after the crisis to address any problematic situations in play now. It is important to act now in order to avoid exposure to significant liability in a post-Covid environment. To that end, we have identified the following four areas of concern. These have been highlighted so that employers can take any required measures to ensure that the telework performed is not only appropriate and safe, but also of sufficient quality to satisfy client and company needs: Concerns Related to Health and Safety while at Work The employer’s obligations in terms of health and safety and its responsibility to take preventive measures continue during this period of telework; The idea that the workplace can include the employee’s home must be taken into account, as well as associated workstation ergonomics Concerns Related to Psychological and Sexual Harassment The need to preserve civility while using new methods of communication; The feeling of familiarity engendered by these new methods of communication can be fertile ground for misconduct or a failure to engage in proper teamwork; The employer’s legal responsibility to prevent and address psychological and sexual harassment situations; Events that occur outside the usual workplace and are related to work; The application and adaptation of administrative policies and codes of conduct; Reviewing complaint and inquiry procedures so that they can take place outside of the usual workplace. Concerns related to the Act Respecting Labour Standards1 Respecting and modifying work schedules; Managing overtime; Costs associated with working from home; Concerns related to Privacy and Confidentiality The contractual performance of work in the employee's home; Transporting and storing work documents; Setting up a workspace to ensure that documents are kept confidential and ethical obligations are respected ; Our Labour and Employment team will be happy to help you implement best practices for telework. Act respecting labour standards, chapter N-1.1.
In order to best support our clients and business partners, our team is following developments related to COVID-19 very closely. We invite you to visit on our website the page that centralizes all of the tools and information produced by our professionals. There is a concern that simply laying off employees could lead to companies experiencing a major loss of expertise and skill. This expertise will be essential to rebuilding after the end of the crisis, a time that for many will be the greatest challenge in the history of their organization. Organizations recognize that employees have value over and above their skills. They have acquired an in-depth understanding of the company’s goals and operations. They have established a relationship of trust with the company, a network of contacts, and a certain degree of autonomy, to name only a few examples. These make all the difference. We are working with many employers to identify solutions designed to protect this invaluable asset during this unprecedented crisis. The latest government announcements, which include provisions for increased wage subsidies for some companies, are certainly a positive response to current concerns and realities. Other programs with solutions that might be of interest include: New Flexibility in the Federal Work-Sharing Program The federal government has recently established measures to increase the flexibility of the Work-Sharing program (“WS”), which has been the subject of many questions from both employers and employees. Considering the frequent changes made to various government programs, it is possible that by the time you read this, some information may no longer be up to date. We therefore invite you to visit the Employment and Social Development Canada1 (“ESDC”) website or consult our labour and employment law professionals for more information. What is the Work-Sharing program (“WS”)? The goal of the program is to allow employers to keep all of their workers by reducing hours rather than laying off part of their workforce. This program may be a good option for employers who are facing a decrease in their normal level of operations due to COVID-19, but who still have some work for their employees in a reduced capacity. During the program’s implementation period, available work is redistributed equally among employees in one or more work units. The employer submits an application and fills out the form outlining the agreement between the employer, the affected employees and their representative, through which the employees voluntarily accept a reduction in their work hours and the sharing of available work. In order to compensate for this reduction in income, the program allows workers who are part of the agreement to receive employment insurance benefits. Under the Employment Insurance Regulations2, remuneration received for a given week of work-sharing is not deducted from the benefits payable under the Employment Insurance Act3. For companies that are directly or indirectly affected by the decline in business due to the current situation, the program’s duration is a minimum of six weeks and a maximum of 76 weeks. The reduction in employees’ regular work schedules must be between a minimum of 10% and a maximum of 60% on average during the period of the agreement. We invite you to visit the ESDC website or consult with our professionals to obtain more information about the eligibility criteria and the general requirements of the program. What Are the New Measures Related to COVID-19? On March 25, due to the downturn caused by COVID-19, the federal government updated its temporary special measures regarding the WS program, including the following, which: Reduce the requirements associated with preparing the application and the attachments. Starting now and until further notice, employers are no longer required to submit: The recovery plan, Attachment B, which used to be required, has been removed and replaced with a single line in the text of the application; Sales and/or production data from the last two years; Broaden program eligibility to include companies that have only been operating for a year, instead of the usual two years; Remove the required waiting period in between WS applications. How to Submit an Application and the Expected Processing Times Following the recent changes made to the program, there is now a simplified way to submit the application. Employers must fill out the following forms, which have been revised by the federal government: Revised form: Application for a Work-Sharing Agreement (EMP5100) Form - Attachment A (revised): Work-Sharing Unit (EMP5101) For businesses located in Quebec, the application must be sent to the following email address: QC-DPMTDS-LMSDPB-TP-WS-GD@servicecanada.gc.ca. As of the date this bulletin was written, the ESDC website that provides information on the special measures implemented due to COVID-19 does not specify the amount of time it will take to process applications. However, it does indicate that employers are now asked to submit their applications 10 calendar days before the requested program start date, and that Service Canada will endeavour to reduce processing time to 10 calendar days. Before COVID-19, employers had to send their Work-Sharing application (and the supporting documents) 30 calendar days before the requested start date. Due to the major increase in applications, the federal government now has nine (9) processing centres in Canada for the purpose of processing WS applications and has the additional capacity to further support employers who have questions. A new email address has been created for the purpose of handling requests for information about the WS program: EDSC.DGOP.TP.REP-RES.WS.POB.ESDC@servicecanada.gc.ca. Conclusion Considering the constant changes, we invite you to consult our labour and employment law professionals to ensure that your decisions are in conformity with the various government programs. The federal government may further increase the flexibility of the program’s conditions and wait times. If necessary, we will keep you informed of any changes to the program with future updates. It is also important to note that there are other kinds of programs that could be of interest in the current situation, such as the Supplemental Unemployment Benefit Program, which allows employers to increase their employees’ weekly earnings when they are unemployed due to a temporary stoppage of work or quarantine. If the conditions are met and the plan is registered with Service Canada, the amounts paid by the employer are not deducted from employees’ employment insurance benefits4. The Lavery team is available to help you implement measures and determine the best way to endure this crisis, protect your organization and prepare to return to normal. See also https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/corporate/notices/coronavirus.html#h4.01. Employment Insurance Regulations, DORS/96-332, subsection 47(1) and section 49. Employment Insurance Act, S.C. 1996, c. 23. Employment Insurance Regulations, supra note 1, subsection 37(1).
Employers must review their action plan on a daily basis to promote prevention, manage possible or proven contagion among their employees and ensure that business operations continue. Two actions are key: Seeking accurate information from public health officials and governments daily; Taking this information into account when deciding how to meet your obligations to employees while maintaining operations. With the stated objective of containing the spread of the coronavirus, each of us is responsible for adapting our behaviours to an evolving set of circumstances, particularly in the workplace. This new reality impacts the responsibilities of employers. New Directives from The Government of Quebec On March 12, 2020, the province declared a state of emergency and the Quebec government announced the following: All persons returning from abroad or having flu- or cold-like symptoms must voluntarily self-isolate for 14 days; Self-isolation is mandatory and paid for all public service employees and all private and public healthcare, education and daycare workers returning from abroad; Organizations must cancel all indoor gatherings of more than 250 people and any unnecessary gatherings for the next 30 days1. At his press conference, the Premier of Quebec invited private sector employers to take the particular situation facing our society into consideration and to be understanding with employees who must take time off work2. With these measures aimed particularly at establishing social distance to slow the spread of the virus, guidelines have been clarified and may serve as a basis for the needs and requirements of both employers and their employees, taking into account the particularities of each workplace. Obligations in the Workplace Employers must take the measures necessary to protect the health, safety and physical well-being of their employees, their clients and the public. Employees are held to the same standards; that is, to preserve their own health as well as that of their colleagues and any third parties they may be in contact with in the course of or in connection with their work. The Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms, the Act Respecting Occupational Health and Safety, the Canada Labour Code and fundamental principles such as those set out in the Civil Code of Québec provide that individuals must not behave in a way that would cause increased harm to others. They must also act in such a way as not to harm their own health, and, by the same token, that of the people in their workplace. These principles are well known to human resource managers and are foundational to establishing workplace policies and guidelines. Policies and Guidelines for Employees In order to encourage employees to contribute to maintaining a healthy work environment free from contamination risks, employers should diligently inform their employees of their intention to follow government guidelines. Internal guidelines could include the following: Cancelling meetings or other non-essential work events that may promote the spread of the virus; Reminding employees of their obligation to report any situation that may require them to self-isolate; Establishing and informing employees of necessary arrangements should isolation become necessary and telework not be possible; Explaining the steps to follow to plan telework and reminding people of the applicable rules under existing policies and employment contracts regarding the confidentiality of business or personal information used in the workplace; Informing employees about of a contingency plan to define, among other things, emergency contact persons and information transmission protocols; and instructing employees on how to access workplace premises or organize their work in the event of a containment situation. Employee Travel and Professional Activities An employer may cancel any professional activity that could reasonably be expected to pose a risk to the health of its employees, clients or the public. In so doing, an organization modifies its expectations as to workplace deliverables. In the current context and further to the government guidelines issued on March 12, 2020, an employer should: Prohibit all business travel both to affected or unaffected areas; Ask its employees to hold essential meetings by videoconference or other technological means; Provide that any other meeting or professional activity in its offices or elsewhere be held in such a way as to reduce the risk of contagion (e.g., videoconferencing, conference calls, observance of hygiene measures and reasonable distances between people). Isolation of Diagnosed Employees or Preventive Isolation Further to the recommendations of public health authorities and on the basis of the government guidelines issued on March 12, 2020, an employer should require that any employee returning from abroad proceed to self-isolate for 14 days. If the employee shows symptoms before the end of the 14-day isolation period, he or she should contact the services set up by the Ministère de la Santé (1-877-644-4545). A nurse may then refer the employee to a designated COVID-19 clinic if necessary. Prior to permitting such an employee to return to work, an employer should be informed of the outcome of these steps and be satisfied that the employee will not pose a risk to colleagues and clients, which may include requesting a medical certificate from the designated COVID-19 clinic if the employee was referred to one. In the case of business travel at an employer’s request prior to the government directives issued on March 12, 2020, any self-isolation period should be paid. If the travel was personal, the payment and form of remuneration during the self-isolation period depends on certain factors, including: At what moment the decision to maintain the departure was made: before or after the government’s instructions were issued or an explicit employer policy was implemented; Positive or negative diagnosis further to a test; Capacity for telework while in isolation. Should employees be unable to report to work (due to their return from abroad, other reasonable grounds to believe that they may be a carrier, or if they or one of their relatives has tested positive), their employer should consider possible avenues under the employment conditions applicable to each particular employee: Paid leave or other conditions available under the Act respecting labour standards and working conditions or collective agreements in the organization, which must then be agreed upon with the employee in question and with the union’s cooperation, if applicable3; Group disability insurance benefits; Record of Employment for sickness and employment insurance sickness benefits; Quarantine and employment insurance benefits as a result of forced leave from work4; Record of Employment for leave and caregiving benefits; Telework if the employee’s tasks can be performed remotely or adapted to do so. Refusal to work The Act Respecting Occupational Health and Safety allows employees to refuse to perform work if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the performance of said work would expose them to danger for their health, safety or physical wellbeing, or would expose another person to similar danger. This Act also provides for the process by which such refusal must be dealt with. However, the prevention and management of work refusal situations could likely be greatly facilitated if employees are aware of the actions taken by the employer to prevent contamination and other health risks to those present in the workplace. For the protection of employees, suppliers and customers, employers must implement the sanitation measures prescribed by government authorities and make any necessary materials available. It must also encourage its employees to follow sanitation instructions and do the following: Provide access to dispensers for alcohol-based antiseptics, tissues and waste bins; Regularly clean common areas (e.g. meeting rooms, cafeteria, etc.); Provide contact information for Info-Santé and the Ministère de la Santé for additional information or screening. According to the government guidelines issued on March 12, 2020, for work premises that can accommodate 250 or more people, the premises must be prepared, or the number of people limited, or those present must be instructed to remain at least two metres away from each other. Work reorganization In order to maintain their activities and provide service to their clientele, some businesses may find it advantageous to alter the way in which their employees work. In addition to resorting to telework, employers may consider alternative working arrangements to maintain adequate staffing while reducing the risk of spreading the virus: Flexible or modified work schedules or staggered working hours (in accordance with the conditions set out in section 53 of the Act respecting labour standards); Rotating schedules to reduce the number of employees in the workplace at the same time; Solicitation of retirees who can fill absences owing to sickness. Immigration Currently, Canadian immigration authorities have put in place emergency measures for foreign nationals in Canada or abroad whose applications for temporary residence have been delayed because of the closure of Canadian visa application centres in mainland China (among other locations). Extensions have been granted to help applicants to obtain now hard-to-get documents. All other applications and all other components of the Canadian program are not affected at this time. No new medical tests for newcomers have been announced and no specific travel restrictions have yet been adopted, with the exception of self-isolation measures for all those arriving from abroad. Health Canada screening officers are present at some Canadian air and land ports of entry, but this measure is still minimally applied at this time. We expect further restrictions at Canadian ports of entry to be implemented in the coming days as the situation progresses. The Key: Keep your Information Up to Date It is important to make sure that the information that you rely on as an employer to make decisions in the current environment is reliable so that your employees can perform their work safely, and for you to continue offering service to your clients. Prudent HR managers should visit the websites of the competent government authorities to confirm the exact terms of the requirements and guidance that these provide. Each workplace operates in its own context, and employers would do well to plan for various possible solutions depending on their circumstances and considering their specific workforce and the needs of their clientele. The events of the last few days have shown that guidelines can change rapidly (even in the course of a day), especially when the spread of the coronavirus suddenly gains speed or following the directives issued by governments to promote “social distancing” as counter the impacts of a possible mass contamination. The diligent implementation of preventive measures and appropriate action as the situation evolves will help ensure, employers are being responsible while, effectively guarding against future civil or criminal claims. The members of our Labour and Employment and Business Immigration teams are available to answer any questions you may have about measures you are considering or the solutions you are seeking given the realities of your organization and its activities. Press release on March 12, 2020. See the same Government of Quebec press release. Employee and union cooperation may be necessary if working conditions need to be adjusted at the employer’s request, which may wish to offer paid leave to cover part of the isolation period. The federal government recently amended the conditions applicable to quarantine to suspend the one-week waiting period before Employment Insurance benefits are paid..
Lavery’s 2017 Major Symposium on Labour and Employment Law held in Montréal was an unqualified success. About 500 people attended the event held June 7 at the Centre Mont-Royal to learn about recent developments in this area. The symposium was hosted by Nicolas Joubert and Guy Lavoie, partners of the Labour and Employment Law group. Participants also attended a number of workshops facilitated by Dave Bouchard, Élodie Brunet, Nicolas Courcy, Marie-Hélène Jolicoeur, Carl Lessard, Josiane L’Heureux, Zeïneb Mellouli and Véronique Morin. The speakers addressed a variety of subjects, including best practices when hiring and terminating employment, managing employees with difficult behaviour or in psychological distress, telework and renegotiating a collective agreement.
Véronique Morin, a lawyer with the Labour and Employment Law Group and a certified mediator,authored an article appearing in the January 24, 2017 issue of Le coin de l’expert, published by the Ordre des conseillers en ressources humaines agréés (CRHA). The article entitled Comment préparer la voie à une enquête en matière de harcèlement psychologique highlights the steps that should be taken to ensure that a complaint is thoroughly and properly handled. More particularly it examines who to assign to investigate and what measures should be imposed on the parties concerned and whether or not psychological harassment is proven. Click here to read the article.
Lavery held the 2016 edition of its Major Symposium in Labour and Employment Law and it was a great success. About 300 people made their way to Centre Mont-Royal on June 8, 2016, to participate in the event. The plenary session was hosted by Nicolas Joubert and Guy Lavoie, partners in the Lavery’s Labour and Employment Law group. On this occasion, attendees got to participate in various workshops presented by Dave Bouchard, Jean Boulet, Élodie Brunet, Brittany Carson, Norman A. Dionne, Josée Dumoulin, Carl Lessard, Josiane L’Heureux, Zeïneb Mellouli, Véronique Morin and François Parent. Speakers addressed many different subjects, such as best practices in recruiting, in employment termination and in disability management; in psychological harassment, in pension plans and lessons we can learn about labour and employment law after forty years of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
On December 8, 2015, Véronique Morin, a lawyer whose practice focuses on labour and health law, presented a webinar to Ordre desconseillers en ressources humaines agréés (CRHA) members. The webinar asked, “What is the true usefulness of last-chance agreements, and how can their effectiveness be increased?” (« Quelle est la véritable utilité des ententes de dernière chance et comment accroître leur efficacité? »), and answered by identifying the applicable accommodation measures, by offering suggestions as to how such clauses should be drafted and by summarizing the lessons that can be derived from recent jurisprudence, as well as providing a summary of the incumbent obligations. For more information about this webinar, please click here (link to French event description).